Word classes: nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs,
Syntax: Sentence moods: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory; sentence types: minor, simple, complex; listing: syndetic and asyndetic;
(Syndetic means connected by a conjunction, asyndetic means with a comma instead of a conjunction.
Syndetic: Birds flock and wheel and cry.
Asyndetic: Birds flock, wheel, and cry.)
Ellipsis: The omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or be understood from contextual clues.
- A set of dots indicating such an omission.
Vocabulary: connotations, semantic fields;
Figurative language: metaphor, simile, personification, symbolism
Register: Formal, informal: genre, audience, topic
Phonology: Alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme
Tenses: past, present, future
Narrative viewpoint: 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person.